Sri Lanka

Education for Conflict Resolution (ECR)

Sri Lanka has suffered from civil war for the last 11 years, as a result the government in partnership with UNCIEF, has launched Education for Conflict Resolution (ECR). A group of interior resource persons were trained at the National Institute of Education in different peace strategies. As a result these peace strategies were adapted to create 10 different manuals for principals, teachers and students. The Conflict Resolution methods are drawn from Buddhism and Hinduism around the ideals of harmony. Aggression and passivity are also included. Children are encouraged to express themselves though role play, stories and songs. These methods are developed into an interdisciplinary way of learning and placed in Social Studies. As a result in 1992-1995 it is estimated that 420,000 of 4.5 million of Sri Lanka’s school children have been reached with this curriculum.

Curriculum
The ECR Curriculum is used in formal and informal education settings.

Nilwala College of Education
The college is the focal point for teacher training. Student teacher trainees learn how to incorporate conflict resolution in social studies. They also learn how to tell stories that are related to the themes of social studies and conflict resolution. The ECR project has trained 3,500 principals, 500 master teachers, 3,000 teachers and 7,500 student leaders.

Philippines

Add Loreta’s summary of work from ppt.

Armenia

Life Skills Curriculum
A variety of meetings were held with various stakeholders interested in education reform in Armenia and in 1998 UNICEF and the Armenian Ministry of Education and Science (MOES) agreed to implement a Life Skills curriculum. The project was piloted in the first and fifth grades in 16 schools in 1999-2000. In 2000-2001 the project was expanded to 100 schools and to the second and sixth grades. UNICEF provided funding and some logistical support and the MOES provided administrative and logistical project support and workspace for the curriculum development team.

Implementation of the Life Skills curriculum, modeled on a Canadian program, was selected because it focuses on developing a set of skills that research has shown contribute to the types of changes sought in Armenia. A Canadian team trained a Core Team of curriculum developers and teacher trainers to write a curriculum tailored for Armenian students and train teachers in implementation. The focal skills of the curriculum included:
– Decision making
– Problem solving
– Creative thinking
– Critical thinking
– Effective communication
– Interpersonal relationship skills
– Self-awareness
– Empathy
– Coping with emotions
– Coping with stress

An evaluation report on the Life Skills Integration program is available for review (see Resources Section below).

Peace and Conflict Resolution Education
The goals and issues of the “Peace and Conflict Resolution Education in Schools” project implemented by “Women for Development” NGO reflect current educational issues of Armenia and contribute to their resolution. The project also supports the process of development of creative individuals, and while carrying out project activities, the priority is given to the development of communication skills among the schoolchildren. New strategic vision for education has been adopted; the process of development emphasizes education as a driver of competitiveness.

Starting with 2005, “Women for Development” NGO actively cooperates with the National Institute of Education of the RA Ministry of Education and Science in frames of the “Peace and Conflict Resolution Education in Schools” project. Main points of the Memorandum of Cooperation signed in 2005 have already been carried out: activities of Peace Education Centers established in 10 schools and Gyumri State Pedagogical Institute were evaluated together with project results; project staff received support and consultation in the process of development of “Peace and Conflict Resolution Education” training course. In December 2007 WFD NGO and NIE reviewed the Memorandum of Understanding signed in 2005 and signed a new Memorandum with the following major points: to elaborate the pilot version of “Peace and Conflict Resolution Education in Schools” methodological manual for the teachers of secondary schools together with NIE during 2008-2009; to organize trainings for the teachers and lecturers of the Peace Education Centers together with NIE. Joint trainings will be conducted for teachers from different schools with the goal of spreading ideas of peace and conflict resolution education. 1500 students, 250 in-service and 300 pre-service teachers will receive “Peace and Conflict Resolution Education” training in 2008-2010.

Thailand

Progress in the Conflict Resolution Education in the Schools and the Higher Education Institutes in Thailand.

There have been conflicts and violence that have caused injuries and serious cripple among the students especially in and among the vocational students. There are the increasing trends of the violence in the youth . According to the survey , the principle causes of the violence are 1) Educational System of the high competitiveness, the rote learning, the punish system 2) the violence in family 3) Media.

The government realized the increasing violence and has announced the Prime Minister’s Order of 187/1546 announced the policy in peaceful conflict management on September 1st ,2003 and another cabinet approval to set up the Institute of Dispute Resolution or alike in the University. These Institute should include the conflict resolution curriculum establishment. The implementation of the Policy has induced the ministry to follow in two ways:

1) Set up the Institute in each University that do serious work like those in Khon Kaen University, Prince of Songkla University, Culalongkorn University and Mahidol University . There are many ongoing activities that these institutes have done such as training, seminars, research and consultant including hand on works. Though conflicts continue to occur but people began to learn the process of dialogue, principled interest-based negotiation and meaningful public participation. These training and activities involved several ministries such as Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Social Development and Human Security, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and many other Agencies of both public and private.

2) Research works to include both practicum such as intervention or operational research and analytical research to include the conflict in schools and ethnicity such as Southern Thailand conflict. The works in schools include the use of positive thinking, mediation, class room management, students participation using students committee.

With the direction of the Prime Minister’s order , several Universities have started the degree program on conflict resolution and management such as Kasetsart University, Chulalongkorn University and Mahidol University.

For the Institutes below the degree program such as Secondary School and Vocational School, the Ministry of Education through the support and control of the Office of the Educational Council, the program for the Conflict Resolution Education and Peace Education was launched during the 2007 fiscal year. The program was planned to run mediation program in 80 schools to cerebrate the 80th Anniversary His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s birth day. The Ministry of Justice and King Prajadhipok’s Institute has been the core institutes to support and train the Administrators, the teachers and students. The initiation 0f the program was introduced by the academic support of Professor Tricia Jones from Temple University and the core member of IN CRE PE who went to run the conference and two consecutive work shops in Thailand in October, 2008

We hope to continue these Conflict Resolution Education and Peace Education Program to other schools in the years to come by the trainers whom we plan to have at least over 50 trainers by the training of the trainer program.

India

Issues underlying Conflicts in INDIA.
Conflict Resolution Education (CRE) and Peace Education (PE)

India is the world’s largest democracy and home to more than one billion people. The national goals are derived from a magnificent history, strong interaction with western societies and great heroes like, Aurobindo, Tagore, Gandhi and others. As it is true in all nations, major problem exists. The country is plagued by inter state or intra state and community violence, which is yet to be solved. In India one will see two categories of people that form the society. One side are the rich and on the other side one hears of farmers committing suicide due to debt and poverty. The poor are becoming poorer, the most illiterate ,the most malnourished people die of hunger among them includes mostly children and women everyday in large numbers. Tribals, Dalits and ethnic minorities are the most deprived in the country. Caste and Ethnic discrimination continue to promote conflict and violence in the Indian peninsula.

Most Government actions are now directed from the top of national and state bureaucracies and most individuals and communities have little voice. Many Government programs are not effective because those served, often poor and illiterate have no power to deal with their public servants. There is a continuing problem of funding services at optimum levels. The mixture of limited services and the undue authority of officials create an imbalance of power with corruption and bribery with the norm in dealing with official agencies. The educational system, based on an old British model, combined with large numbers of students from poorly educated, families and major competitions for jobs and government stipends, stifles individual creativity and contributions.

There is a long, prevalent history of bribes, payoffs and kickbacks at every level of government. These are so prevalent that business and individuals often build them into the budget. Many in the Government feel they have the right to get as much as they can since, they have been downtrodden and exploited. Unless a new attitude emerges, people will continue to distrust their government and continue to be exploited. A new thinking, a new attitude, a new morality must emerge in individuals in order to become informed, honest and fully participating citizens. These attitudes can be taught and applied to life throughout the school years. This large system needs major modification that will require large numbers of people to change their attitude and behaviour.

Some forms of overt violence

• Naxalites and Maoist movement is presently growing and about 165 of the 602 districts in 22 states are affected.
• In the Northeast India, there is the presence of various armed ethnic outfits aspiring for their own nationalism. Many tribes have their own armed outfits. Militarization is also growing in the region, young people are being recruited in the Government armies, at the same time there is also recruitment among the ethnic armed groups.
• There is a growing militarization of the Government army in almost all the tribal belts in India.
• Unemployment among youths is growing in most of the conflict areas and within the country.
• Caste and communal polilitics is increasing the polarization of the Indian communities.
• Gender discrimination, violence against ethnic minorities, tribals and dalits are increasing in Institutions and major cities.
• There is increase in HIV/AIDS among young people especially in the conflict areas.
• Religious fundamentalism is increasing. Education is being defined from the perspectives of the major communities and not necessarily on scientific lines in some aspects. Minor ethnic groups are force to assimilate and learn the major languages.

North Caucasus

A project to study the effectiveness of peace and conflict prevention education programs being implemented in five subregions of the [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Caucasus]North Caucasus[/url] was realizing from December 2007 till January 2008 as part of the international initiative to study the situation with the said programs world-wide.

The Project was aimed at examining the current situation with peace education in five subregions of the North Caucasus and developing recommendations regarding its further development.

The current situation in the following subregions was studied:

1. Republic of Dagestan (Patimat Omarova, Coordinator, Stop Alcohol And Drug Abuse, Makhachkala);
2. Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (Natalia Chuprunova, Coordinator, Farn NGO, Vladikavkaz);
3. Stavropol Krai (Viktoria Galyapina, Coordinator, Stavropol State University, Stavropol);
4. Chechen Republic (Vasiliy K. Yarkiev, Coordinator, Stimul NGO, Grozny).

The findings of this Project can be summarized as follows:

In the most public educational institutions of the said subregions, peace education activities are rather sporadic (peace classes or extra-curricular activities). Long-term targeted efforts in the field depend mainly on the personal initiatives of school principals and teachers or they have been introduced in public schools and other educational institutions which are engaged in related programs run by UN agencies, international and Russian NGOs working in the North Caucasus. However, a significant experience that has been accumulated by these institutions can become a basis for specialized programs to introduce basic components of peace education in the public educational institutions of the North Caucasus.

The following conclusions were made and recommendations suggested:

1. Synergies between government stakeholders from education and related sectors and civil society and community are absent.
2. The introduction of long-term peace education programs is urgently required.
3. Participatory projects and programs targeted at young people need to be supported.
4. Peace education programs are being introduced mainly as CSO initiatives.
5. The existing peace education efforts that have been initiated in some educational institutions are realized as pilot projects mainly.
6. Systematic retraining and professional development programs as regards peace education for educationalists at the national and municipal level are practically unavailable (except for the Pyatigorsk branch of the North Caucasus Academy of State Service in Stavropol Krai)
7. The only leading peace education program in the North Caucasus is the UNESCO sponsored program.
8. The establishment of a single coordination unit to develop integrated and comprehensive long-term peace education programs is urgently required.
9. Peace education initiatives are delivered mainly in the following forms: topical seminars, lectures, discussions, class debates, workshops, entertainment activities and celebrations, concerts and performances, excursions, picture competitions and exhibitions of posters, contests of young experts in other cultures, meetings with members of NGOs/CSOs, training activities, parents- and teachers- meetings, conferences, and optional classes.