Social and Emotional Learning
Social and emotional learning programs develop critical competencies in children. Emotionally competent children are happier and more productive. Schools offer a wonderful opportunity to provide social and emotional education. And schools themselves may benefit from doing so as Jonathan Cohen suggests (2000, p. 5):
In recent years, there has been growing concern that more and more children are distressed, disturbed, and not motivated to learn. We all know that psychological and, too often, physical violence complicate and often derail educators and children’s capacity to teach and to learn. . . On a typical school day, over 135,000 students bring weapons to school (Hamburg, 1992; Mott Foundation, 1994). Today, 25% of American 10 to 17 year old children suffer from school adjustment problems, problems that are predictive of later, more serious problems (Dryfoos, 1990). As students move into the adolescence (14 to 17 year olds), recent studies show that 35% of our children engage in high-risk behavior. Between 15 and 22% of our nations youth experience social, emotional and other problems that necessitate mental health treatment. And, approximately 80% of them are not receiving needed services (Dryfoos, 1997). These and related findings about the distressing state of children nationally and internationally have intensified our search for more effective ways by which that we can help our children develop into responsible, caring and healthy individuals.
The Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning is a good source of information and support. For instance, you can find a collection of sample SEL activities and a quick introduction to SEL on their website. CASEL has put forth guidelines for SEL programs (Elias & Weissberg, 2000) that explain the best ways to implement programs at the classroom, school and district levels. They detail the skills that are the focus of SEL efforts. Also of interest is a review of SEL activity in a number of different countries developed by the Marcelino Botin Foundation.
CASEL’s Key Skills in Social and Emotional Learning
- Recognizing and naming one’s emotions.
- Understanding the reasons and circumstances for feeling as one does.
- Self-Regulation of Emotion
- Verbalizing and coping with anxiety, anger, and depression.
- Controlling impulses, aggression and self-destructive, anti-social behavior.
- Recognizing strengths in and mobilizing positive feelings about self, school, family and support networks.
- Self-Monitoring and Performance
- Focusing on tasks at hand.
- Setting short- and long-term goals.
- Modifying performance in light of feedback.
- Mobilizing positive motivation.
- Activating hope and optimism.
- Working toward optimal performance states, learning how to achieve flow.
- Empathy and Perspective Taking
- Becoming a good listener.
- Increasing empathy and sensitivity to others’ feelings.
- Understanding others’ perspectives, points of view and feelings.
- Social Skills in Handling Relationships
- Managing emotions in relationships, harmonizing diverse feelings & viewpoints.
- Expressing emotions effectively.
- Exercising assertiveness, leadership, and persuasion.
- Working as part of a team/cooperative learning groups.
- Showing sensitivity to social cues.
- Exercising social decision-making and problem-solving skills.
- Responding constructively to interpersonal conflict.
2008 Meta-Analysis of SEL Programs
Some of the most compelling information supporting SEL comes from findings of the largest, most scientifically rigorous review of research ever done on interventions that promote children’s social and emotional development. This review of more than 700 studies published through 2007 included school, family, and community interventions designed to promote social and emotional skills in children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 18. This large sample of studies was divided into three main areas: studies about (a) school-based interventions, (b) after-school programs, and (c) programs for families.
Results of the school-based research, which included 207 studies of programs involving 288,000 students, is of key relevance here. In this meta-analysis (study of studies), researchers used statistical techniques to summarize the findings across all the studies and found a broad range of benefits for students:
- 9% decrease in conduct problems, such as classroom misbehavior and aggression
- 10% decrease in emotional distress, such as anxiety and depression
- 9% improvement in attitudes about self, others, and school
- 23% improvement in social and emotional skills
- 11% improvement in achievement test scores
Videos of Possible Interest
- 4Rs (Reading, Writing, Respect & Resolution) in a 2nd Grade Brooklyn Classroom
- In a Responsive Classroom
- A More Accurate RULER – Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence
- Social and Emotional Learning After School
- Cyberbullying Toolkit for Educators
- CNN Segment on Emotional Intelligence
- Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview
- PAX Good Behaviour Game
- News Story about Cool School video game
- Jane McGonigal: Gaming can make a better world
- Conflict of Friends
- How to Teach Math as a Social Activity
- Emotional Intelligence: An Overview
See MORE VIDEOS...
Sample Catalog Resources
Below you'll find a randomized listing of up to 20 related items (we may have more...) drawn from our Resource Catalog.
|Don't Laugh at Me Teachers Guide: Grades 2-5 Creating a Ridicule-Free Classroom||Don't Laugh At Me provides an effective tool for establishing a caring climate in which the emotional and physical abuse children suffer because of peer ridicule, bullying and other asocial behaviors is far less likely to occur. Operation Respect developed the Don't Laugh at Me (DLAM) programs, one for grades 2-5, another for grades 6-8 and a third for summer camps and after-school programs. All of the programs utilize inspiring music and video along with curriculum guides such as this one based on the well-tested, highly regarded conflict resolution curricula developed by the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) of Educators for Social Responsibility (ESR). Visit http://www.operationrespect.org to sign up for the full free curriculum kit which includes evaluations, CD and Video along with the curriculum guides.|
|Guidelines for personal disclosure (for teachers)||Pdf document that sets forward guidelines (for teachers) for disclosing personal information within the bounds of social and emotional learning programs. Written above title on document: NCIP (National Curriculum Integration Project).|
|Social and Emotional Learning and Bullying Prevention||21-page briefing paper prepared for the National Center for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) and the Social and Emotional Learning Research Group at the University of Illinois at Chicago. "Schools using a social and emotional learning (SEL) framework can foster an overall climate of inclusion, warmth, and respect, and promote the development of core social and emotional skills among both students and staff. Because bullying prevention is entirely congruent with SEL, it can be embedded in a school's SEL framework. The aims of this brief are to (a) provide a basic description of a school-wide SEL framework, (b) illustrate the relationship between social and emotional factors and bullying, and (c) explain how an SEL framework can be extended to include bullying prevention."|
|VOV activities: Preventing feelings of isolation through trust and cooperation, grades 7-12||6-page PDF with activities for 7-12 graders to improve communication skills and build trust.|
|GIRC Annotated Bibliography of Conflict Resolution Resources||An annotated bibliography from the Global Issues Resource Center on conflict resolution resources covering the topics of bullying prevention, classroom management, and trauma & violence prevention. Includes books, curricula, videotapes, simulations and games.|
|Children at risk, violence in our home||Two diagrams, one outlining the ways in which children may be at risk, such as physical, sexual and emotional abuse, the second diagram shows ways in which at risk children have problems in school, such as acting out, falling asleep, and no respect for authority.|
|Conflict resolution: Citizenship education for young people with special needs||27-page PDF document which aims to, "develop positive models for dealing with conflict and to practise appropriate responses to deal with conflict." Includes examples of use of universal access symbols to increase retention and understanding when working with low literacy participants and students in special education classrooms.|
|2010-2011 Playworks Playbook||Playworks is a non-profit organization whose mission is to improve the health and well-being of children by increasing opportunities for physical activity and safe, meaningful play. The Playbook, a 390-page pdf, provides full descriptions of games and activities appropriate for K-5 school children. They are organized in the following categories: Ice Breakers; Readiness Games; Tag Games; Cooperative Games; Core Playground Games and Sports; Core Games Modifications; and Health and Fitness - FitKid Program. Also included is structured curriculum in Violence Prevention and Peace Promotion. The Violence Prevention materials focus on providing students with a set of foundation skills for preventing violence using a framework called the Five Fingers of Safety. The Peace Promotion materials focus on proactive measures to encourage and foster a healthy community, and can be used with a variety of student groups.|
|Confidentiality||Pdf document which discusses the concept of confidentiality in social and emotional learning environments. Written above title on document: NCIP (National Curriculum Integration Project).|
|Conflict resolution education: models, relationships to other fields||Powerpoint presentation examining conflict resolution education and its relationship to fields such as peace studies, law related education and social and emotional learning.|
|Needham experience: a district's commitment to social and emotional learning||Powerpoint presentation of the Needham School District's experience with a comprehensive social and emotional learning program.|
|Beginning with the Children - A guide to creating a Peace Helpers program, grades K-2||This 73-page guide presents a field-tested, step-by-step process schools can use to train and support young students (K-2) in serving as â€œpeace helpersâ€ in their classrooms. After training sessions to develop their skills in listening, handling feelings, and mediating conflicts, they help their teacher establish a peace corner. Upon request they are available to work in the peace corner, listening to a student who is upset or helping two classmates talk out a conflict. Chapter 1 of the guide describes the Peace Helpers Program at P.S. 24 in Brooklyn, NY, to provide a vision of what's possible. Chapter 2 describes the ingredients for a successful program and a process a school planning team can use to decide whether now is the time for a Peace Helpers Program at their school. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 describe the steps for establishing and sustaining the program, including detailed agendas for workshop sessions to train the peace helpers. The Appendix has handouts for the peace helpers' training and other aids for implementing the program.|
|Photocards of Feelings||Photocards of feelings developed for grades 7 and 8 in the U.K. These cards provide a stimulus for children to explore and develop their feelings vocabulary. Includes feelings key and sample discussion questions.|
|Let's Be Friends Elementary Curriculum Grades 2-3||A prevention curriculum teaching young children positive social skills, "Let's Be Friends" presents useful tools that enable students to co-create a positive social environment that fosters kindness, compassion and responsibility. The 45-page pdf provides 8 lessons targeted toward early elementary students. Lesson One: Positive Attributes Lesson Two: Internal & External Strengths Lesson Three: What is a Friend? Lesson Four: Qualities of Friends Lesson Five: Understanding Conflict Lesson Six: Building Empathy Lesson Seven: Ways to be a Friend Lesson Eight: Reflecting on Friendships|
|Positive impact of social and emotional learning kindergarten to eighth grade students, The||51-page PDF technical report which, "summarizes results from three large-scale reviews of research on the impact of social and emotional learning (SEL) programs on elementary and middle-school students â€” that is, programs that seek to promote various aocial and emotional skills. Collectively the three reviews included 317 studies and involved 324,303 children. SEL programs yielded multiple benefits in each review and were effective in both school and after-school settings and for students with and without behavioral and emotional problems. They were also effective across the K-8 grade range and for racially and ethnically diverse students from urban, rural, and suburban settings. SEL programs improved studentsâ€™ social-emotional skills, attitudes about self and others, connection to school, positive social behavior, and academic performance; they also reduced studentsâ€™ conduct problems and emotional distress. Comparing results from these reviews to findings obtained in reviews of interventions by other research teams suggests that SEL programs are among the most successful youth-development programs offered to school-age youth. Furthermore, school staff (e.g., teachers, student support staff) carried out SEL programs effectively, indicating that they can be incorporated into routine educational practice. In addition, SEL programming improved studentsâ€™ academic performance by 11 to 17 percentile points across the three reviews, indicating that they offer students a practical educational benefit. Given these positive findings, we recommend that federal, state, and local policies and practices encourage the broad implementation of well-designed, evidence-based SEL programs during and after school."|
|Cooperative Problem-Solving : A Guide to Turning Conflicts into Agreements||This 56-page pdf is a guide designed for people who want to know how to resolve conflicts with other people in a way that leads to mutual agreements and stronger relationships. It was developed as a workbook for a workshop of the same title, but it can be used independently. Based on the book Getting to Yes, the Guide addresses: - Treating conflict as a natural resource - How to attack problems while respecting people - Raising an issue in a constructive manner - Exploring opposing positions to discover shared interests - Generating options to address all partiesâ€™ needs - Crafting clear and healthy solutions - Dealing with differing perceptions - Managing emotions - Insuring two-way communications - Choosing when to use a cooperative approach - Being a peacemaker while resolving conflicts|
|Conflict resolution education and Social emotional learning programs: A critical comparison||Pdf document that compares and contrasts Social and emotional learning programs to Conflict resolution education, with bibliography. Part of the results of the National Curriculum Integration Project.|
|What have I done: Victim empathy pack responsibility exercises||13-page Word document presenting a "new victim empathy resource designed to keep victim awareness high in Restorative Justice practitioner's priorities." Contains a number of exercises about taking responsibility for one's actions and exploring feelings.|
|Social emotional learning scenario||Web-based interactive resource which introduces social emotional learning which "refers to knowledge, habits, skills and ideals that are at the heart of a child's academic, personal, social, and civic development ... this type of learning enables individuals to recognize and manage emotions, develop caring and concern for others, make responsible decisions, establish and maintain positive relationships, and handle challenging situations effectively."|
|Integrated lessons: Collection from the National Curriculum Integration Project||Pdf document presenting a series of lessons for both language arts and social studies classes which examine conflict, explore positive solutions and examine how issues of culture and bias, social and emotional learning and law related education impact conflict and its resolution. Written above title on document: NCIP (National Curriculum Integration Project).|